Hello people! I seriously don't think I'm able to write as much as Sylvia so at least you all get to read something short and sweet.
Shortwave radiation is basically radiant energy (light) in the visible, near infrared and near ultraviolet spectrum. Some of this shortwave radiation which enters the Earth is reflected to space in the end due to various means of reflection, with the others being absorbed by the surface or other things as shown in the diagram below. (The shortwave radiation is labeled with red arrows.)
Longwave radiation is energy leaving the Earth as infrared energy. Although the surface of the Earth emits a large amount of longwave energy, only around 5% is directly lost to space, with the majority being absorbed by greenhouse gases and being converted to heat energy which is then emitted as atmospheric longwave radiation, resulting in the greenhouse effect. The atmospheric longwave radiation emission is split into 2 categories with 40% being lost to space, and the other 60% being transmitted to the Earth’s surface where it is absorbed and becomes heat energy. (Refer to diagram above for specific details.)